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Test Using JUnit

JUnit: A Complete Guide

May 25, 2022
 by 
Shinji Kanai

Software and application testing is an integral part of any development process as it helps to ensure the quality of software targeted toward a specific end-user community. By identifying and correcting defects early in the development process, software testing can help to reduce the number of permanent defects that make it into production. This saves time & money and results in a better product.

Unit testing is a way to write code that tests an individual piece of functionality and makes sure it behaves as expected. This guide looks at JUnit, a unit testing framework that helps make your life easier when writing code for automation.

What is JUnit?

JUnit is a Java testing framework that makes writing reliable and efficient tests easy. It can be used for applications made in most languages but is particularly suited for testing Java applications. JUnit can also be used to create automated tests.

JUnit framework is one of the most popular Java testing frameworks. It offers several features that make writing tests easy, including support for multiple test cases, assertions, and reporting. JUnit is also versatile, allowing tests to be written in various languages.

 It allows you to create and run tests efficiently and has become one of the most popular Java testing frameworks. The xUnit frameworks inspire JUnit for Smalltalk and C++. Since JUnit is a member of the xUnit family of testing frameworks, it is designed to support different tests, including unit, functional, and integration tests.

JUnit is primarily used for unit testing, but it can also be used for other tests, such as functional and integration tests. Functional tests test the functionality of a system. They are different from unit tests in that they test the system as a whole rather than individual units. Integration tests test the integration of two or more systems. They are different from unit tests in that they test how well the components of a system work together rather than individually.

How does JUnit work?

JUnit is a software testing framework that helps developers test their applications. It allows developers to write tests in Java and run them on the Java platform. JUnit also has a built-in reporter that can print out the results of the tests. 

There are two main goals of automation testing with JUnit. The first goal is to ensure that the software is doing what it's supposed to do. If a piece of code is supposed to do something and it doesn't, you want to know about that as quickly as possible so you can fix it. The second goal of automation testing with JUnit is to find errors in your code; if you encounter problems with the way your code works, remember the golden rule: remove bugs before they can be fixed!

The JUnit program has several kinds of tests. Unit tests test individual pieces of code within a class or method; integration tests, which test how all the parts work together; and system tests, which test entire systems such as web servers. When you have many tests, it is helpful to run them all simultaneously; otherwise, they can take an extremely long time to execute. You can use JUnit on the command line or from within Eclipse. 

JUnit provides several features that make it easy to create and run tests, including:

  • Assertions: Assertions are used to verify the expected behavior of a system. JUnit provides a set of assertion methods that can be used to check the results of a test.
  • Test runners: Test runners are used for executing the tests and reporting the results. JUnit provides a graphical test runner that can run tests and view the results.
  • Test suites: Test suites are used to group related tests. JUnit provides a way to create test suites that can be run together.
  • Reporting: When you run your tests, JUnit can help you analyze the results. It provides a built-in reporter that prints out information about the executed tests.

Benefits of using JUnit

There are many benefits to using JUnit, the most notable of which is its ability to help you develop reliable and testable code. Here are some other reasons why you will definitely want to start using JUnit: 

  • JUnit can help you keep your code organized and easy to read.
  • JUnit can help you detect and fix errors in your code.
  • JUnit can help you improve the quality of your software. 
  • JUnit can help you work more efficiently and improve your testing process.

If you are a software developer and want to start using JUnit, many resources are available to help you get started. You can find JUnit tutorial, documentation, forums, and more that can help you learn how to use JUnit effectively. With the right knowledge of tools and support, you can start using JUnit to improve the quality of your code and make your development process more efficient.

Getting Started with JUnit Framework

JUnit is a Java testing framework that helps you write more reliable and testable code. It comes with many features, such as mocking, assertions, and runtime data verification. This guide will show you how to use JUnit to test your java code. We will start with the basics of JUnit and then move on to some practical examples.

Introduction to Unit Testing and JUnit

Unit testing is checking the functionality of a software module or system using simulated conditions. It is one of the essential techniques for ensuring software code quality.

Unit testing is generally divided into two categories: functional and manual testing. Functional tests check whether a module or system can carry out its intended functions. Human beings perform manual tests to verify that a module or system works as expected.

JUnit is an open-source unit testing framework developed by developers at IBM. JUnit is widely used in Java applications, and it has been ported to other programming languages. The main advantage of using JUnit is its modularity. JUnit contains several modules that allow you to test different components of a software application. You can also use JUnit to test individual classes instead of entire applications.

JUnit also has several features that make it easy to use. For example, JUnit includes a built-in report generator that makes it easy to generate detailed reports about your unit tests.

JUnit History

Kent Beck originally developed JUnit as a project at Sun Microsystems labs in 1998. The goal was to create a versatile, reliable, and extensible automated testing framework. 

Apache Software Foundation later open-sourced it in 2003. JUnit soon became the de facto standard for Java testing. Today, JUnit automated testing framework is used by developers worldwide to test their applications.

How to Install JUnit Testing Framework

In the section below, we are going to let you know how to install JUnit. To learn how to install JUnit in Eclipse IDE, follow these steps: 

Step 1: Open Eclipse and start it with the latest version. 

Step 2: Go to the "Help" menu and select "Install New Software...". 

Step 3: Click on the "Add" button and search for JUnit repo : https://github.com/junit-team/junit4

Step 4: Select JUnit from the list of choices and then click on "Next." 

Step 5: Select OS X target if you are using Mac OSX; if not, just hit "Next." After selecting your target system, you will be walked through the installation process.

Step 6: Close the Installation Wizard window once JUnit is installed on your OS.

Step 7: Double click on the JUnit icon located in the 'Run' dialog box.

Step 8: If you want to install JUnit-4d (it won't be a default one, you need to find it manually), then click on the 'Install' button. 

Step 9: Once JUnit is installed on your OS, close the Installation Wizard window.

Step 10: Double click on the JUnit icon in the 'Run' dialog box and follow the instructions to start JUnit in Eclipse.

Once JUnit is started, you can run your test cases as expected.

Supported OS/Platforms: Mac OS X 10.2 or later; Windows 7.0 or later, Linux 2.6 or later (including 64-bit Linux)

Creating a Standard Test File

In this section, we will create a standard test file that we can use to test our code.

A standard test file is a file that contains all the code and tests that we need to run our code. This allows us to quickly and easily run our tests without searching for specific files.

To create a standard test file, we first need to create a new project in Eclipse. We can do this by clicking on the New Project button in the Project Window toolbar and selecting Java from the project type drop-down list.

Once we have created our project, we will need to create a new test file. We can do this by clicking on the New Test File button on the main toolbar and selecting Java from the project type drop-down list.

We will then need to enter some information about our test file. The first thing that we need to do is name our test file. We can do this by entering TestFile1 into the FileName field and clicking the OK button. Next, we will need to add some code to our test file. We can do this by inserting the following code into TestFile1:


// TestFile1.package.com.java

Setting Up New JUnit Project

If you're using Eclipse, you can set up a JUnit project by following these steps:

1. Click File > New > Project.

2. Select Java > Java Project from the list of project types.

3. Enter your project name and click Next.

4. Select a Java version and click Next.

5. Select a target platform and click Next.

6. Click Finish to create the project.

If you're using IntelliJ IDEA, you can set up a JUnit project by following these steps:

1. Click File > New > Project.

2. Select Java > Java Project from the list of project types.

3. Enter your project name and click Next.

4. Select a Java version and click Next.

5. Click Finish to create the project.

Setting Up Your Test Class

In this part, we will let you know everything needed to set up your test class.

When creating a test class, it's essential to follow some guidelines.

  • First, make your test class as small as possible. This will make it easier to read and understand.
  • Second, make sure all of your tests are relevant to your test code.
  • Third, make sure your tests are well written.
  • Fourth, keep your tests organized and modularized.
  • Fifth, use assertions wherever possible.
  • Finally, run your tests regularly to ensure that they are working correctly.

Follow these steps to write your first JUnit test class:

1. Right-click on the src folder and select New > Class.

2. Enter a class name and click OK.

3. Add the following code:


import org.junit.Test;
public class ExampleTest {
@Test
public void test() {
//TODO: add your test here
}
}

4. Save the file and close it.

Writing the Test Method

Writing a test method is an integral part of automated testing using JUnit. A test method tells you how to carry out your test and what to expect.

In this section, we'll learn how to write a test method for the JUnit testing framework.

To write a unit test, we'll need to add the following code:


import org.junit.Test;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertEquals;
public class ExampleTest {
@Test
public void test() {
assertEquals(2, 1 + 1);
}
}

This code tells JUnit that we want to create a unit test and defines the test method. We can add our code to the test method, which JUnit will run when we run our tests.

When writing a unit test, it's essential to follow some best practices. These include:

1. Keeping your tests focused and simple.

2. Choosing relevant inputs for your tests.

3. Pay attention to edge cases and other potential issues that could impact the quality of your test results.

4. Ensuring that your tests are repeatable and reliable over time, regardless of any changes you make to your application or system under test.

5. Checking the results of your tests regularly to make sure they are working correctly and addressing any issues that arise promptly.

Creating and Running Tests

Now that we've written our first test method, it's time to learn how to create and run tests. We'll need to open the project in a testing framework like JUnit to run our test. This is done by right-clicking on the project folder and selecting Run As > JUnit Test.

To create and run tests with JUnit, we'll need to use the following steps:

1. Right-click on the ExampleTest class and select Run As > JUnit Test.

2. A new test window will open, showing results for your test.

3. To view or change your test settings, click on the Run menu and select Open Test Runner Window.

4. Make any necessary changes to your tests and click Run again.

5. Continue making changes and re-running your tests until you've achieved the desired results.

6. When you're satisfied with your testing results, save your test file and close it. Your unit tests are now ready to be used in your application!

When running tests, it's vital to ensure that your application or system under test is set up correctly and that you have all of the necessary resources available.

It's also important to pay close attention to any errors or warnings that might appear, as these can indicate potential issues with your code or tests.

Finally, regularly run your tests and check the results to ensure that everything is working as expected. With proper setup and regular testing, you can reap the many benefits of JUnit testing!

Appendix: Some Tools for Building and Running Tests

This appendix provides some additional tools that can be used for building and running tests. These tools are not required, but they can help make testing easier. 

JUnit is a popular testing framework available for Java. It has a plugin architecture that allows it to be integrated with various toolchains.

The JUnit Plugin for Eclipse is a popular tool for managing and running tests in Eclipse. The JUnit Testing Framework Plugin for Maven is another standard option for organizing and running tests in Maven. 

The TestNG framework is another popular option for building and running tests. TestNG can be used with different toolchains, including Java and JavaScript.

Other popular tools for building and running tests include NUnit and xUnit. These tools can be used in manual and automated testing with JUnit environments, making them a good choice for any application or system requiring consistent testing.

Debugs & Exceptions

In this section, we'll cover the basics of using JUnit to debug your Java applications.

First, we'll overview the different debugging modes that JUnit provides. Then, we'll let you know how to run a simple JUnit test case and get information about its execution time and errors. 

Finally, we'll conclude the section with some standard troubleshooting techniques.

Debugging Modes

JUnit provides two debugging modes: Java Debug Wire Protocol (JDWP) and Standard Streams.

JDWP

JDWP is the recommended mode for most users, as it provides more information about test execution and can be used with a broader range of toolchains.

To use JDWP, simply select it from the list of available options in the JUnit launch configuration dialog. Using Eclipse, you can also enable JDWP by selecting Run > Debug As > JUnit Test.

1. Select the project or class you want to debug from the list of available options.

2. In the main window, select the Debug Configurations tab.

3. Double-click on JUnit or click the Edit button to open the JUnit launch configuration dialog.

4. Select JDWP from the Debugger tab and click Apply to save your changes.

5. Run your test as usual and check for any errors or warnings in the central console window.

6. Continue making changes and re-running your tests until you've identified and fixed any issues with your code or application setup.

7. When you're satisfied with your debugging results, save your test file and close it to exit debugging mode. Your unit tests are now ready to be used in your Java application!

Standard Streams

Standard Streams is another debugging mode that can be used with JUnit. This mode prints everything that would typically go from the main console window to the standard output stream instead. While this mode provides less information than JDWP, it can be useful for debugging simple tests and applications.

To use Standard Streams with JUnit Framework, select it from the drop-down list in the JUnit launch configuration dialog or select Run > Debug As > JUnit Test. This will open a new console window to display your test results. You can then use this console window to view any errors or warnings during testing.

1. Select the project or class you want to debug from the list of available options.

2. In the main window, select the Debug Configurations tab.

3. Double-click on JUnit or click the Edit button to open the JUnit launch configuration dialog.

4. Select Standard Streams from the Debugger tab and click Apply to save your changes.

5. Run your test as usual and check for any errors or warnings in the central console window.

6. Continue making changes and re-running your tests until you've identified and fixed any issues with your code or application setup.

7. When you're satisfied with your debugging results, save your test file and close it to exit debugging mode. Your unit tests are now ready to be used.

Common Troubleshooting Techniques

Many different techniques can be used for troubleshooting problems in Java applications.

  • One popular approach is to start by running your tests in debug mode and checking for any errors that might appear.
  • Another common troubleshooting technique is to use a debugger or other development tools, such as log files or profilers, to gather more information about the runtime environment and application behavior.
  • If you're encountering issues with testing frameworks or libraries, another practical approach is to check their documentation and forums for known bugs or workarounds. This can help you identify potential problems before they affect your codebase.

In general, it's always a good idea to test early and often to identify and address any issues quickly. By following these debugging techniques, you'll be better equipped to resolve any problems in your Java applications and unit tests.

Well-Written Test Prerequisites

A well-written test in JUnit must consist of these four modules:

1. Annotation: The first thing we need is an annotation. Annotation tells JUnit that this is a test method.

2. Method signature: The second thing we need is a method signature. The method signature tells JUnit what the method's name is and how many parameters it takes.

3. Method body: Finally, we need a method body. The method body contains the code executed when the test is run.

4. Assertion: We also need to include an assertion. Assertions are used to verify that the expected results are correct. Without assertions, we wouldn't be able to know if our tests passed or failed.

Using Assertions

In this section, we will discuss the assertions available in JUnit. We will also show you how to use them and their purpose. Assertions are a fundamental part of testing. They allow you to check whether a condition is true before running your test. This helps to avoid bugs and glitches in your code. Now that we told you all the basics of assertions, let's see how to use them in JUnit:

Assert.assertEquals()

This assertion checks whether two values are equal. If they are not, then the test will fail.

The assertEquals() method takes two parameters. The first is the expected value, and the second is the actual value.

Here is an example:


assertEquals("Hello", "World");

In this example, we check whether the string "Hello" equals the "World." As you can see, this assertion will fail because the two strings are not equal.

Assert.assertNotNull()

This assertion checks whether a value is null or not. If it is null, then the test will fail.

The assertNotNull() method takes a single parameter, the value you want to check.

Here is an example:


assertNotNull("Hello");

In this example, we check whether the string "Hello" is null or not. If it is null, then the test will fail. As you can see, this assertion will pass because the string "Hello" is not null.

Assert.assertTrue()

This assertion checks whether a condition is true or not. If it is not true, then the test will fail.

The assertTrue() method takes a single parameter, which is the condition that you want to check.

Here is an example:


assertTrue(true);

In the above-given example, we are checking whether the condition (true) is true or not. As you can see, this assertion will pass because the condition is true.

Assert.fail()

This assertion fails a test immediately. It is typically used when a test should not be run because it is not yet ready.

The fail() method takes a single parameter, which is the message displayed when the test fails.

Here is an example:


fail("This test is not ready");

In this example, we use the fail() method to fail the test immediately. The message "This test is not ready" will be displayed when the test fails.

These are some of the assertions that are available in JUnit. There are many others that you can use to check different conditions and verify the results of your code.

Overall, using assertions is a vital part of testing your code. They allow you to quickly detect and fix bugs and glitches, which helps to reduce errors and improve the quality of your code. To learn more about using assertions in JUnit, consult the official documentation for more detailed information.

The Bottom Line

If you are looking for a robust Java testing framework that makes it easy to create and run unit tests, then JUnit is your tool. Whether you are starting your testing career or are an experienced developer, JUnit has all the features and tools you need to create high-quality, reliable tests. So why wait? Get started with JUnit today and take your Java development skills to the next level!

JUnit FAQs

Q1: What are the most critical assertions in JUnit?

A1: The most important assertions in JUnit are assertEquals(), assertNotNull(), and assertTrue(). These assertions allow you to check the equality of values, the nullity of values, and the truthiness of conditions, respectively. Other useful assertions in JUnit include assertFalse(), assertArrayEquals(), and assertNull().

Q2: What is the purpose of the fail() method?

A2: The fail() method is used to fail a test immediately. It is typically used when a test should not be run because it is not yet ready. The message passed to the fail() method will be displayed when the test fails.

Q3: Where can I learn more about using JUnit?

A3: You can find more information about using JUnit in the official documentation. This documentation includes detailed information about assertions, running tests, and more. You can also find a helpful Junit Testing tutorial and some articles online that show you how to use JUnit in your Java development projects.

Q4: What are some of the Java testing frameworks?

A4: In addition to JUnit, some of the most popular Java testing frameworks include TestNG, Spock, and Hamcrest. These frameworks offer various features and tools that make creating and running unit tests easy. Each framework has its strengths and weaknesses, so be sure to choose the one that is best suited for your specific needs.